32 Interesting Facts About Eubacteria + Characteristics & Types

Eubacterium (plural eubacteria), also known as “true bacteria,” is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae.

They are typically found in water, soil, living in and on large organisms. All types of bacteria fall under this title, except for archaebacteria (a type of single-cell organism).

Here Is A List Of 32 Interesting Facts About Eubacteria:

1 The bacteria are responsible for many human diseases, however, they also help form vital parts of all of Earth’s ecosystems and maintain health. Note – only a small percentage of these organisms cause disease.

2 Most familiar eubacteria are heterotrophs (are unable to produce organic substances from inorganic ones), meaning they must take food in from outside sources. Other than binary fission (in this process, the genetic material is replicated, and the two copies move to separate nucleoid regions), fragmentation and budding, Eubacteria are capable of producing spores in order to remain dormant during unfavorable conditions.

3 Most Eubacteria from the oral cavity (mouth) are relatively biochemically inactive.

4 The genus Eubacterium is the 2nd most common bacterial genus found in the human gastrointestinal tract after the Bacteroides (a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria).

5 Penicillin-resistant bacteria contain an enzyme which modifies penicillin (a group of antibiotics), making it ineffective.

Life Cycle

Image credit – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eubacteria_(259_11)_Bacillus_subtilis_bacteria.jpg

6 Under very favorable conditions, certain bacterial cells can divide as frequent as once every 20 minutes.

7 When environmental conditions are harsh, some species can form endospore, a type of resistive structure.

8 Bacterial spores have been reawakened from a 250-million-year-old salt crystal which existed before the time of the dinosaurs.

Structure

9 The general structure of Eubacteria consists of a rigid cell wall that holds all the organelles inside it.

10 The Eubacterial cells are typically surrounded by a capsule that is made up of polypeptides or polysaccharides.

11 Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria do not have any membrane-bound organelles, like -chloroplasts or mitochondria.

12 Eubacteria have circular DNA molecules called plasmids.

Characteristics

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Image credit – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SalmonellaNIAID.jpg

11 Eubacteria can derive their nutrition from 3 energy sources:

  • inorganic compounds;
  • organic compounds;
  • sunlight.

13 All Eubacteria are either bacilli (rod-shaped), spirilla (spiral-shaped), or cocci (spherical).

14 They have smaller ribosomes (a cell structure that makes protein).

15 Some bacteria may have a projection composed of protein filaments, or flagella, which is used for movement.

16 Many Eubacteria produce spores, resistant to dehydration, toxic chemicals, radiation, and most temperatures, when there is no food and can last around 50 years.

17 They have circular DNA which is naked (not bound to protein).

18 Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria have cholesterol present in the membrane to increase stiffness as well as to boost permeability attributes of the membrane.

19 They have a rigid cell wall made of a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids, called peptidoglycan (rather than cellulose as found in plant cell walls).

Functions & Uses

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Image credit – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diverse_e_Coli.png

11 Many Eubacteria are decomposers, meaning that they help keep dead organisms from covering the world while giving plants the nutrients which are important to their growth.

20 Some Eubacteria are good to eat, especially those in yogurt. However, some Eubacteria such as Salmonella and Esecheria coli are occasionally found in undercooked eggs and meat and can make some individuals sick. Diseases in human beings are usually caused by infection of parasitic eubacteria.

Types

21 Eubacteria are typically classified into different phylums, such as:

Spirochetes

22 These are double-membrane bacteria with long, helically coiled cells. They are named this way because of their spiral shape. These bacteria are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by their flagella, that run lengthwise between the outer membrane and cell wall. Examples of genera of spirochetes include:

  • Leptospira – some cause leptospirosis (a rare bacterial infection that may spread through the urine of rodents, dogs, and farm animals);
  • Borrelia – they may cause relapsing fever (an arthropod-borne infection); they can also cause Lyme disease, an infectious disease with the following symptoms – headache, fever, erythema migrans, and fatigue;
  • Treponema – they are a genus of flexible, spirally shaped bacteria that are micro-aerophilic chemoorganotrophs or anaerobic;
  • Spirochaeta – they are a type of curved spiral, highly motile gram-negative bacteria.

Proteobacteria

23 They include a wide variety of pathogens, like – Salmonella, Escherichia, Helicobacter, Vibrio, and many other notable genera.

24 They have cell walls composed mainly of lipopolysaccharides, giving them gram-negative stains.

25 The Proteobacteria are divided into 5 classes:

  • Epsilonproteobacteria – they usually inhabit the digestive tracts of animals and serve as symbionts;
  • Deltaproteobacteria – they are sulfur and sulfate reducers and include – Bdellovibrio and Myxobacteria;
  • Gammaproteobacteria – fluorescent pseudomonads, purple sulfur bacteria and include -Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pasteurella, Francisella, and Legionella;
  • Betaproteobacteria – they are a class of gram-negative bacteria and include – Thiobacillus, Rhodocyclus, Spirillum, Alcaligenes, and Nitrosovibrio;
  • Alphaproteobacteria – they are purple non-sulfur bacteria, rhizobacteria, Rickettsiae, Agrobacterium, Nitrobacter.

Cyanobacteria

Image credit – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cyanobacterium-inline.svg

26 They are thought to be mainly responsible for the starts of oxygen revolution which changed the Earth’s atmosphere (The Great Oxygenation Event), making possible the evolution of large oxygen using organisms.

27 They are a photosynthetic group with structures and functions similar to those of algae and plants. Cyanobacteria are about 2.5 billion years old, hence, they are the oldest oxygenic phototrophs on Earth.

28 Cyanobacteria were the main organisms in the stromatolites of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons.

29 This category has those bacteria that contain chlorophyll pigment.

30 Cyanobacteria reproduce by either through vegetative or asexual methods and no sexual methods are in existence since there are no gamete and meiosis formations.

31 They can exist in habitats which are considered extreme, like – hot springs, frozen lakes, and salt works. Also, these bacteria can be found in fresh and marine water environments.

Chlamydias

32 They are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens and symbionts of diverse organisms. Chlamdyas are dependent on replication inside the host cells, therefore, some species are symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa and some are obligate intracellular pathogens.

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9045836
https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article/39/3/274/1783747
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007401
 

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