Glipizide vs Januvia – Comparison of Uses & Side Effects

Glipizide

It is the generic version of the brand drug called Glucotrol. It belongs to a group of drugs called sulfonylureas. It helps lower blood sugar (glucose) levels by causing the pancreas to secrete insulin.

Uses

This medication is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by helping to control blood glucose (sugar) levels.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition which affects the way your body metabolizes sugar, your body’s most important source of fuel.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus may include:

  • increased thirst;
  • frequent urination;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • headaches;
  • increased hunger;
  • blurred vision;
  • dry mouth;
  • fatigue (tired feeling);
  • unexplained weight loss.

This prescription medication is sometimes used along with other anti-diabetic medications to achieve better control of the high blood sugar (glucose) levels.

Important note – this medication does not cure type 2 diabetes.

Dosage

The usual recommended initial dose is 5 mg once per day, given before breakfast. Sufferers with liver disease may be started on 2.5 mg.

Contraindications

To be sure that this prescription medication is safe for you, tell your healthcare professional:

  • if you have porphyria or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency;
  • if you have ever had an allergic reaction to any type of medicine;
  • if you have kidney problems;
  • if you are breastfeeding a baby;
  • if you have liver problems;
  • if you are pregnant or plan on becoming pregnant;
  • if you have problems with your adrenal pituitary glands;
  • if you are taking any other medicines which are available to buy with a prescription, over-the-counter medicines as well as complementary and herbal medicines.

Side Effects And Precautions

Common side effects may include:

  • diarrhea;
  • skin redness, rash, or itching;
  • constipation;
  • mild nausea;
  • dizziness;
  • drowsiness.
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Less common side effects may include:

  • feeling tired or short of breath;
  • confusion;
  • vomiting;
  • rapid heart rate;
  • severe nausea;
  • a feeling like you might pass out;
  • pale skin;
  • sweating or thirst;
  • clay-colored stools;
  • bleeding gums;
  • upper stomach pain;
  • nosebleeds;
  • dark urine;
  • fast or pounding heartbeats;
  • a throbbing headache;
  • fever;
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes;
  • loss of appetite.

Alcoholalcohol

Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages while taking this medication since alcohol use may increase the risk of severe side effects.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

This medication appears to be safe during pregnancy. To be sure, tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to fall pregnant before taking this medication.

It is not known exactly whether this medication passes into breast milk or if it could negatively affect a breastfed infant. Tell your healthcare provider that you are breastfeeding a baby before taking this medication.

Drug Interactionsdrugs pills

It may negatively interact with other medications, especially:

  • Byetta (exenatide);
  • Aleve (naproxen);
  • lisinopril;
  • furosemide;
  • amlodipine;
  • metoprolol;
  • glimepiride;
  • aspirin;
  • Lantus (insulin glargine);
  • hydrochlorothiazide;
  • Aspirin Low Strength (aspirin);
  • levothyroxine;
  • insulin;
  • atorvastatin;
  • simvastatin;
  • stribild;
  • Lipitor (atorvastatin);
  • Bydureon (exenatide);
  • glyburide;
  • losartan;
  • carvedilol;
  • Trulicity (dulaglutide);
  • metformin;
  • Crestor (rosuvastatin);
  • gabapentin;
  • genvoya;
  • omeprazole.

Januvia

It is the brand name of a medication called sitagliptin, that belongs to the group of type 2 diabetes drugs known as DPP-4 inhibitors.

Mechanism of Action

It works by regulating the levels of insulin the human body produces after eating.

This medication is made by Merck & Co, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. The US FDA originally approved this medication in 2006.

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Uses

It is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In addition, it may be taken in combination with other diabetes drugs to lower blood glucose levels.

Dosage

The usual recommended dosage is 100 mg orally, taken once per day.

Note – it is important to take this type 2 diabetes medication exactly as prescribed by your healthcare professional.

Side Effects And Precautions

Common side effects may include:

  • muscle pain;
  • constipation;
  • a sore throat;
  • diarrhea;
  • a stuffy nose;
  • stomach pain;
  • headaches;
  • back pain;
  • nausea.

Less common side effects may include:

  • vomiting;
  • feeling short of breath;
  • unexplained weight gain;
  • a sore throat;
  • urinating less than usual;
  • fever;
  • fast heart rate;
  • swelling of your face or tongue;
  • loss of appetite;
  • burning in your eyes;
  • severe pain in your upper stomach that usually spreads to the back.

Contraindications

Before using this type 2 diabetes medication, tell your healthcare professional if you have:

  • gallstones;
  • an allergic reaction to any type of medication;
  • pancreatitis;
  • past or present kidney problems;
  • very high levels of triglycerides;
  • diabetic ketoacidosis, a condition that occurs when ketones build up in the body;
  • type 1 diabetes.

Drug Interactions

It may negatively interact with other medications, especially:

  • Byetta (exenatide);
  • Aleve (naproxen);
  • furosemide;
  • amlodipine;
  • glimepiride;
  • aspirin;
  • hydrochlorothiazide;
  • Aspirin Low Strength (aspirin);
  • insulin;
  • atorvastatin;
  • Lipitor (atorvastatin);
  • Bydureon (exenatide);
  • losartan;
  • carvedilol;
  • metformin;
  • Crestor (rosuvastatin);
  • omeprazole;
  • gabapentin;
  • odefsey;
  • Trulicity (dulaglutide);
  • glyburide;
  • simvastatin;
  • Lantus (insulin glargine);
  • metoprolol;
  • lisinopril;
  • levothyroxine.

Alcohol

Alcohol can affect your blood glucose (sugar) levels. Do not drink alcoholic beverages while taking this medication without first discussing it with your healthcare provider.

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Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

It is not known exactly whether this medication passes into breast milk or if it could negatively affect a breastfed infant. Tell your healthcare provider that you are breastfeeding a baby before taking this medication.

This medication appears to be safe during pregnancy. To be sure, tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to fall pregnant before taking this medication.

Bottom Line – Glipizide vs Januvia

Glipizide (brand name – Glucotrol) is in a class of medications called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas.

Januvia (active ingredient – sitagliptin) is a DPP-4 inhibitor which helps lower the blood sugar (glucose) levels. The usual recommended dose is 100 mg orally once a day.

According to a 2013 study, both medications provided similar A1C-lowering efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal insufficiency. However, sitagliptin (Januvia) was generally well-tolerated, with a lower risk of hypoglycemia, compared to glipizide.

References

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/5/1304
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0121553
http://www.pfizer.com/files/products/uspi_glipizide_er.pdf

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