The word comes from the Greek and means cheese. This is in the quotation to the fact that this supplement was initially discovered from a cheese protein – casein, in 1846, by German chemist Justus von Liebig.
Uses and functions
This amino acid plays an important role in the fabrication of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine.
In addition, because this amino acid is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormone (which affects protein synthesis) and adrenaline (epinephrine), the amino acid supports healthy glandular function and stress response.
It is also an aromatic amino acid and is derived from amino acid phenylalanine by hydroxylation in the para position. While this amino acid is hydrophobic, this non-essential amino acid is significantly more soluble that is phenylalanine.
The phenolic hydroxyl of it is significantly more acidic than are the aliphatic hydroxyls of either threonine or serine, having a pKa of about 9.8 in polypeptides.
This amino acid contributes to the absorbance spectra of proteins and absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
- it is effective at reducing stress levels;
- it is involved in the production and synthesis of extra chemicals and hormone such as Melanin;
- reduce blood pressure;
- improves alertness following the loss of sleep;
- it is needed to synthesize the benzoquinone structure, which forms part of coenzyme Q10.
In 2012, according to the NIMH, in the US, 16 million individuals had at least 1 depressive episode, plus, 1 in 20 of young people aged 12-17 years had experienced a major depressive episode in 2014.
Taking supplements containing this amino acid may help some people in their fight against depression, but in dosages above 500 mg/day.
Parkinson’s disease develops from the loss of cells in the brain which produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter which helps control the brain’s pleasure and reward centers as well as it controls the body’s movements.
This condition affects up to one million people in the United States. Ingesting this amino acid may lower mood disorders, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and in some cases Parkinson’s disease.
Attention deficit disorder is a neurological and behavior-related disorder which cause impulsiveness, difficulty in concentrating, and excessive energy.
According to the CDC, attention deficit disorder diagnoses in children increased by about 41% between 2003 and 2011. Clinical trials of using supplements which contain this amino acid tried to improve ADH symptoms in patients showed some important positive results.
It is found in a number of high protein food sources. This includes meat, peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts, avocados, lima beans, white beans, adzuki beans, red kidney beans, chickpeas, lentils, milk, sesame seeds, chia seeds, flaxseeds, watermelon seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, bananas, mangoes, papayas, pineapples, apples, and soy products.
Side Effects of Tyrosine
The side effects can include overstimulation, restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety. Arrhythmias, rapid heartbeat or heart palpitations are potential side effects that occur from high doses of this amino acid.
These can happen in sensitive individuals in as low a dose as 200 to 500 mg, or even less.
You would also need to avoid this supplement in combination with synthetic thyroid hormones and L-Dopa (typical Parkinson’s treatment).
There are not enough studies available to know if this amino acid is safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Clinical studies and research indicate that this non-essential amino acid can be consumed in amounts up to 12 grams per day. Obviously, taking doses this high is not recommended except on the advice of a healthcare specialist.
The generally approved daily range seems to be between 1 and 5 grams. This may be partitioned into even administrations several times per day in order to maintain a constant supply in the body.