Pectus excavatum (PE) is a congenital chest wall deformity in which several ribs and the sternum grow abnormally, leading to a concave appearance in the anterior chest wall. It may worsen with age and typically involves the middle lower portion of the sternum.
The deformity may be asymmetrical or symmetrical. Reported prevalence has been 1/300 to 1/1000 live births. PE is more common in boys than in girls.
Common symptoms of PE can include:
- hooked shoulders and a broad thin chest;
- an absence of the curve of the upper back;
- a lateral curvature of the spine;
- chest pain;
- shortness of breath upon exercise or exertion;
- more rapid breathing than normal;
- a hollow depression in the chest which may be deep and narrow, broad and shallow, or irregular.
Note – an individual with PE may not have any symptoms during childhood, however, as the sufferer grows into an adolescent, he may have signs and symptoms due to a more pronounced indentation in the chest wall.
PE is caused by too much growth of the connective tissue which joins the ribs to the breastbone.
About 40% of PE patients have one or more family members with the same defect.
Note – there is no evidence that PE causes progressive damage to the heart and lungs over time or limits life expectancy.
The condition occurs more often in persons who also have:
- Turner syndrome – it is a chromosomal condition which affects development in females;
- Marfan syndrome – it is a disorder which affects the body’s connective tissue;
- Poland’s syndrome – it is a rare inherited condition that involves a complete absence or the underdevelopment of the chest muscles on one side of the body;
- Noonan syndrome – it is a disorder which involves short stature, unusual facial characteristics, bleeding problems, heart defects present at birth, malformations of the bones of the rib cage, and developmental delays;
- scoliosis – it is a curvature of the spine;
- Osteogenesis imperfecta – it is a genetic bone disorder that is characterized by fragile bones which break easily;
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome – it is a group of genetic connective tissue disorders.
Health care providers diagnose PE based on a physical exam and a patient’s medical history. If required, health care providers might also order tests such as:
- laboratory studies with the blood samples;
- a physical examination of the sternum;
- electrocardiogram or EKG;
- chest X-ray;
- exercise or stress test;
- breathing tests or pulmonary function;
- an echocardiogram or an ultrasound study of the heart;
- computed tomography scan.
- Ravitch technique – during this procedure, the surgeon removes abnormal rib cartilage while preserving the perichondrium;
- Nuss technique – this approach uses minimally invasive surgical techniques.
Both procedures require pain medication for a few weeks to manage discomfort and about 5-days hospital stay following surgery.
Here Is A List Of 10 Famous People With Pectus Excavatum:
#1 Tori Spelling
She is an American television personality, actress, and author who is most widely known from her first major role on Beverly Hills, 90210 as Donna Martin. Tori is the daughter of Hollywood producer Aaron Spelling and Candy Spelling.
In 2008, she displayed a concave chest as she took a stroll with her husband in Beverly Hills.
#2 Brendan Fraser
He is a Canadian-American actor who is best known for playing in The Mummy trilogy, George of the Jungle (1997), Encino Man (1992), Looney Tunes: Back in Action (2003), Bedazzled (2000), and Journey to the Center of the Earth (2008).
She is an American dancer, singer, actress, choreographer, and television personality who began her career at the age of 18 as a cheerleader for the Los Angeles Lakers, where she was discovered by The Jacksons.
#4 Hayden Panettiere
She is an American model, singer, actress, and activist who is known for playing in the musical-drama series Nashville and in the sci-fi series Heroes.
He is an American actor who has starred in some of the highest-grossing films of his era, such as:
- The Fly (1986), that earned him a Saturn Award for Best Actor;
- Into the Night (1985);
- The Big Chill (1983);
- Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978);
- Independence Day: Resurgence (2016);
- Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018);
- The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997);
- Independence Day (1996);
- Jurassic Park (1993).
#6 Chris Evans
He is an American actor who is best known for his roles as the Marvel Comics character Human Torch in Fantastic Four (2005 and 2007) and Captain America in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
In 2014, Chris Evans made his directorial debut with the drama film Before We Go.
He is an American producer and actor who is best known for playing in:
- the comedy-drama CQ (2001);
- the horror film Demon Knight (1995);
- the western film Tombstone (1993);
- the television series Twin Peaks (1991);
- Dead Calm (1989);
- Back to the Future Part II (1989);
- the science fiction comedies Back to the Future (1985);
- the epic romantic film Titanic.
#8 Kirk Douglas
He is an American producer, director, actor, and author who became an international star through his leading role as a boxing hero in Champion (1949). This role also brought him his 1st nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
He is an American producer, actor, and activist who has received:
- three British Academy Film Award nominations;
- three Academy Awards;
- a Golden Globe Award;
- a Grammy Award.
#10 Robert Drysdale
He is an American Brazilian professional mixed martial and Jiu-Jitsu black belt artist who is the current Light Heavyweight Champion.
References https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5056941/ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1555415512002930 http://www.jabfm.org/content/23/2/230.full